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Waylon Allen
Waylon Allen

How to Access Principles of Tourism 2 by Zenaida Cruz PDF Free Online and Offline


Principles of Tourism 2 by Zenaida Cruz PDF Free




If you are looking for a comprehensive and up-to-date textbook on tourism studies, you should check out Principles of Tourism 2 by Zenaida Cruz PDF Free. This book is written by Zenaida L. Cruz, a professor emeritus at the University of the Philippines Diliman and a renowned expert in tourism education and research. She has authored several books and articles on various aspects of tourism theory and practice.




Principles Of Tourism 2 By Zenaida Cruz Pdf Free



Principles of Tourism 2 is the second part of a two-volume series that covers the basic concepts and principles of tourism. The first volume focuses on the nature and history of tourism, while the second volume deals with the planning and development of tourism. The book is designed for students and professionals who want to learn more about the dynamic and complex field of tourism.


In this article, we will give you an overview of what you can expect from Principles of Tourism 2 by Zenaida Cruz PDF Free. We will also provide you with some tips on how to download and access the book online for free.


What is Tourism?




Before we dive into the topics covered by Principles of Tourism 2, let us first review what tourism is and why it is important to study it.


Tourism is defined by the World Tourism Organization (WTO) as "the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".


Tourism is a multifaceted phenomenon that involves the movement of people, the exchange of goods and services, the creation of experiences, and the impact on the environment, society, culture, and economy.


Tourism is one of the largest and fastest-growing industries in the world. According to the WTO, in 2019, there were 1.5 billion international tourist arrivals, generating $1.7 trillion in export earnings. Tourism also contributes to 10.3% of the global GDP and supports 330 million jobs worldwide.


Tourism is also a significant source of income and development for many countries and regions, especially in the developing world. Tourism can help reduce poverty, promote cultural diversity, enhance environmental conservation, and foster peace and cooperation.


However, tourism also poses many challenges and risks, such as overcrowding, pollution, congestion, exploitation, conflict, and displacement. Tourism can also have negative effects on the natural and cultural heritage, the local communities, and the tourists themselves.


Therefore, tourism requires careful planning and management to ensure that it is sustainable, responsible, and beneficial for all stakeholders.


The Tourism System




One of the ways to understand tourism is to view it as a system. A system is a set of interrelated and interdependent components that function as a whole to achieve a common goal or purpose.


The tourism system consists of four main components:



  • Tourists: the people who travel to and stay in destinations for various reasons and motivations.



  • Destinations: the places where tourists visit and experience different attractions and activities.



  • Intermediaries: the entities that facilitate the connection between tourists and destinations, such as travel agencies, tour operators, transport providers, accommodation providers, etc.



  • Impacts: the outcomes and consequences of tourism on the environment, society, culture, and economy of both the origin and destination areas.



The tourism system also involves various interactions among these components, such as flows of information, money, goods, services, and people. These interactions are influenced by various factors, such as technology, politics, culture, ethics, etc.


The tourism system is dynamic and complex, meaning that it changes over time and space, and that it has multiple dimensions and levels of analysis.


The Tourism Product




A tourism product is anything that can be offered to tourists to satisfy their needs and wants during their travel. A tourism product can be tangible or intangible, single or composite, standardized or customized, etc.


Some examples of tourism products are:



  • Attractions: the natural or man-made features that draw tourists to a destination, such as landscapes, monuments, museums, festivals, etc.



  • Services: the activities that enhance the tourist experience, such as transportation, accommodation, food and beverage, entertainment, etc.



  • Facilities: the infrastructure and equipment that support the delivery of tourism services, such as roads, airports, hotels, restaurants, etc.



  • Experiences: the emotional and psychological outcomes that tourists derive from their travel, such as fun, relaxation, learning, adventure, etc.



A tourism product can be classified into different types based on various criteria, such as purpose (leisure or business), duration (short-term or long-term), distance (domestic or international), mode (mass or niche), etc.


The Tourism Product Life Cycle




A useful concept for understanding the evolution of tourism products is the product life cycle (PLC). The PLC describes the stages that a product goes through from its introduction to its decline in the market.


The PLC consists of four phases:



  • Introduction: the product is new and innovative, and attracts a small number of early adopters who are willing to try it out. The product has low sales and profits, and faces high costs and risks.



  • Growth: the product becomes more popular and accepted by a larger number of customers who are influenced by word-of-mouth and marketing efforts. The product has high sales and profits, and benefits from economies of scale and learning effects.



  • Maturity: the product reaches its peak level of sales and profits, and faces intense competition from other similar or substitute products. The product has stable or declining sales and profits, and relies on differentiation and loyalty strategies to maintain its market share.



  • Decline: the product loses its appeal and relevance to customers who switch to newer or better products. sales and profits, and faces the options of withdrawing, repositioning, or diversifying the product.



The PLC can be applied to tourism products to understand how they change over time in response to market demand and competition. For example, a destination can go through the PLC stages as follows:



  • Introduction: the destination is undiscovered and unexplored by tourists, and offers a unique and authentic experience. The destination has low tourist arrivals and receipts, and faces high development and promotion costs.



  • Growth: the destination becomes more known and accessible to tourists, and offers a variety of attractions and activities. The destination has high tourist arrivals and receipts, and benefits from increased investment and infrastructure.



  • Maturity: the destination reaches its maximum capacity and popularity among tourists, and offers a standardized and mass-produced experience. The destination has stable or declining tourist arrivals and receipts, and faces fierce competition from other similar or alternative destinations.



  • Decline: the destination loses its attractiveness and competitiveness to tourists, and suffers from overdevelopment and degradation of its resources and values. The destination has low or negative tourist arrivals and receipts, and faces the options of rejuvenating, rebranding, or diversifying the destination.



The PLC can help tourism planners and managers to identify the current and future status of their tourism products, and to adopt appropriate strategies to extend or modify their life cycles.


The Tourism Market




A tourism market is a group of potential or actual customers who share similar needs, wants, preferences, and behaviors regarding tourism products.


A tourism market can be segmented into different categories based on various criteria, such as geographic (location, climate, distance), demographic (age, gender, income, education), psychographic (personality, lifestyle, values), behavioral (motivation, frequency, loyalty), etc.


Some examples of tourism market segments are:



  • Adventure tourists: those who seek thrilling and challenging activities that involve physical or mental risk, such as mountaineering, rafting, skydiving, etc.



  • Cultural tourists: those who seek to learn about and appreciate the history, art, religion, language, and customs of different peoples and places, such as museums, monuments, festivals, etc.



  • Eco-tourists: those who seek to enjoy and conserve the natural environment and its biodiversity, such as national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, coral reefs, etc.



  • Business tourists: those who travel for work-related purposes, such as meetings, conferences, trade shows, etc.



  • Medical tourists: those who travel for health-related purposes, such as treatment, surgery, wellness, etc.



A tourism market can be analyzed using various tools and techniques, such as surveys, interviews, focus groups, observation, etc.


The Tourism Demand




Tourism demand refers to the amount and type of tourism products that tourists are willing and able to buy at a given price and time.


Tourism demand is influenced by various factors, such as:



  • Personal factors: the characteristics and motivations of tourists that affect their travel decisions, such as income, age, education, lifestyle, etc.



  • Social factors: the influences of other people on tourists' travel decisions, such as family, friends, peers, media, etc.



  • Cultural factors: the beliefs and values of tourists that affect their travel preferences and expectations, such as religion, tradition, nationality, etc.



  • Situational factors: the circumstances and conditions that affect tourists' travel opportunities and choices, such as time, budget, availability, weather, etc.



Tourism demand can be measured using various indicators, such as tourist arrivals (the number of tourists who visit a destination), tourist nights (the number of nights that tourists spend in a destination), tourist expenditure (the amount of money that tourists spend in a destination), etc.


The Tourism Supply




Tourism supply refers to the amount and type of tourism products that destinations are willing and able to offer to tourists at a given price and time.


Tourism supply is influenced by various factors, such as:



  • Natural factors: the resources and features of destinations that attract tourists, such as climate, landscape, wildlife, etc.



  • Cultural factors: the resources and features of destinations that reflect the identity and heritage of the local people, such as history, art, religion, language, etc.



  • Economic factors: the resources and features of destinations that enable the production and delivery of tourism products, such as infrastructure, technology, investment, employment, etc.



  • Political factors: the resources and features of destinations that regulate and facilitate the development and management of tourism products, such as policy, legislation, planning, governance, etc.



Tourism supply can be measured using various indicators, such as tourism capacity (the maximum amount of tourism products that a destination can offer without compromising its quality and sustainability), tourism productivity (the ratio of tourism output to tourism input), tourism competitiveness (the ability of a destination to attract and satisfy tourists in relation to other destinations), etc.


Tourism Planning and Development




strategies and actions to achieve the desired goals and objectives of tourism at different levels and scales.


Tourism planning and development is important for various reasons, such as:



  • To optimize the benefits and minimize the costs of tourism for all stakeholders, such as tourists, destinations, intermediaries, and impacts.



  • To ensure the sustainability and responsibility of tourism for the present and future generations, by balancing the environmental, social, cultural, and economic dimensions of tourism.



  • To enhance the competitiveness and attractiveness of tourism products and destinations in relation to other products and destinations.



  • To address the challenges and opportunities of tourism in a dynamic and complex environment, by adapting to the changing needs and expectations of tourists and markets.



Tourism planning and development involves various principles and processes, such as:


Tourism Policy




Tourism policy is a set of statements and guidelines that define the vision, mission, goals, objectives, strategies, instruments, and stakeholders of tourism at a given level and scale.


Tourism policy can be formulated and implemented by various actors, such as governments, international organizations, private sector, civil society, etc.


Tourism policy can have various functions, such as:



  • To provide direction and guidance for tourism planning and development.



  • To coordinate and harmonize the interests and actions of different stakeholders.



  • To regulate and control the quality and performance of tourism products and services.



  • To stimulate and support the innovation and improvement of tourism products and services.



  • To monitor and evaluate the outcomes and impacts of tourism planning and development.



Tourism Legislation




Tourism legislation is a set of laws and regulations that govern the legal aspects and issues related to tourism at a given level and scale.


Tourism legislation can be enacted and enforced by various authorities, such as national governments, regional governments, local governments, courts, etc.


Tourism legislation can have various purposes, such as:



  • To protect the rights and interests of tourists, such as safety, security, health, privacy, etc.



  • To protect the rights and interests of destinations, such as sovereignty, ownership, management, etc.



  • To protect the rights and interests of intermediaries, such as contracts, liability, compensation, etc.



  • To protect the rights and interests of impacts, such as environment, society, culture, economy, etc.



Tourism Standards




Tourism standards are a set of criteria and indicators that define the expected level of quality and performance of tourism products and services at a given level and scale.


Tourism standards can be developed and applied by various entities, professional associations, private sector, etc.


Tourism standards can have various types, such as:



  • Accreditation: a voluntary process of recognition and certification of the quality and performance of tourism products and services by an authorized body.



  • Certification: a voluntary process of verification and validation of the compliance of tourism products and services with a set of predefined criteria and indicators.



  • Codes of conduct: a voluntary set of rules and principles that guide the behavior and actions of tourism stakeholders in relation to their roles and responsibilities.



Tourism Planning Models




Tourism planning models are frameworks and methods that help tourism planners and managers to analyze, design, implement, and evaluate tourism planning and development strategies and actions.


Tourism planning models can vary in terms of their scope, focus, approach, and outcome, depending on the context and purpose of tourism planning and development.


Some examples of tourism planning models are:


Rational-Comprehensive Model




This model is based on the assumption that tourism planning and development is a logical and systematic process that follows a sequence of steps, such as:



  • Define the problem or opportunity.



  • Identify the goals and objectives.



  • Collect and analyze the relevant data and information.



  • Generate and evaluate the alternative solutions or options.



  • Select and justify the best solution or option.



  • Implement and monitor the chosen solution or option.



  • Review and revise the solution or option as needed.



This model is useful for dealing with complex and multidimensional problems or opportunities, and for ensuring that tourism planning and development is based on rationality and evidence.


Incremental Model




This model is based on the assumption that tourism planning and development is a gradual and adaptive process that follows a series of small steps, such as:



  • Recognize the existing situation and conditions.



  • Determine the feasible and acceptable changes or improvements.



  • Implement and monitor the changes or improvements.



  • Review and revise the changes or improvements as needed.



This model is useful for dealing with uncertain and dynamic situations and conditions, and for ensuring that tourism planning and development is flexible and responsive.


Participatory Model




This model is based on the assumption that tourism planning and development is a collaborative and inclusive process that involves the participation of various stakeholders, such as:



  • Identify and engage the relevant stakeholders.



  • Facilitate the communication and consultation among stakeholders.



  • Negotiate and agree on the common vision, goals, objectives, strategies, actions, roles, responsibilities, etc.



  • Implement and monitor the agreed plan or project.



  • Evaluate and report the results and impacts of the plan or project.



and conflicting interests and expectations of stakeholders, and for ensuring that tourism planning and development is democratic and equitable.


Strategic Model




This model is based on the assumption that tourism planning and development is a visionary and proactive process that aims to achieve a desired future state or outcome, such as:



  • Develop a clear and compelling vision and mission for tourism.



  • Analyze the internal and external environment of tourism, such as strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats (SWOT analysis).



  • Formulate and prioritize the strategic goals and objectives for tourism.



  • Design and implement the strategic actions and programs for tourism.



  • Measure and evaluate the performance and impact of tourism.



This model is useful for dealing with competitive and challenging situations and conditions, and for ensuring that tourism planning and development is innovative and effective.


Sustainable Model




This model is based on the assumption that tourism planning and development is a balanced and responsible process that aims to achieve the optimal use of resources and values for the present and future generations, such as:



  • Assess the current and potential impacts of tourism on the environment, society, culture, and economy.



  • Identify and apply the principles and criteria of sustainability for tourism, such as conservation, preservation, restoration, enhancement, etc.



  • Integrate and harmonize the environmental, social, cultural, and economic dimensions of tourism.



  • Implement and monitor the sustainable practices and measures for tourism, such as reducing, reusing, recycling, etc.



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