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Michelli De Rojas
Michelli De Rojas

Dinosauro: The Ultimate Guide to the Prehistoric World


Dinosaurs: The Prehistoric Reptiles That Ruled the Earth




Dinosaurs are among the most amazing creatures that ever lived on our planet. They were a diverse group of reptiles that dominated the land for over 165 million years, from the Triassic period to the end of the Cretaceous period. They ranged in size from tiny, feathered animals to gigantic, long-necked herbivores. They adapted to various environments and lifestyles, from deserts to swamps, from hunters to grazers, from solitary to social. They also gave rise to modern birds, which are their only living descendants.


But how do we know so much about these extinct animals? How did they evolve, live, and die? And what makes them so fascinating and important for science and culture? In this article, we will explore these questions and more, using fossil evidence, scientific research, and vivid illustrations. We will learn about the main types and groups of dinosaurs, their evolution and adaptation, their extinction and survival, and their legacy and significance.




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How did dinosaurs evolve from archosaurs?




Dinosaurs did not appear suddenly on Earth. They evolved gradually from a group of reptiles called archosaurs, which means "ruling lizards". Archosaurs were among the survivors of a mass extinction event that wiped out most of the life on Earth at the end of the Permian period, about 252 million years ago. Archosaurs diversified into many forms, including crocodiles, pterosaurs (flying reptiles), and dinosaurs.


The first dinosaurs evolved during the middle to late Triassic period, about 230 million years ago, in the part of the supercontinent Pangaea that corresponds to modern South America. They were small, bipedal (walking on two legs), carnivorous (meat-eating) animals that had a hole in their hip socket that allowed them to walk upright. One of the earliest known dinosaurs is Eoraptor, which means "dawn thief". It was about one meter long and weighed about 10 kilograms.


During the Jurassic period, from 201 to 145 million years ago, dinosaurs became more diverse and widespread. They split into two main branches: saurischians ("lizard-hipped") and ornithischians ("bird-hipped"). Saurischians include theropods (carnivorous dinosaurs) and sauropodomorphs (herbivorous dinosaurs with long necks and tails). Ornithischians include various kinds of herbivorous dinosaurs with beaks, horns, frills, spikes, or armor.


Sauropodomorphs were the largest land animals ever to exist. They included genera such as Brachiosaurus, Apatosaurus, Diplodocus, and Argentinosaurus. Some of them reached lengths of over 30 meters and weights of over 70 tons. They had massive bodies supported by four pillar-like legs, long necks that allowed them to reach high vegetation, and small heads with peg-like teeth for stripping leaves.


Theropods were mostly bipedal. Theropods were mostly bipedal, carnivorous dinosaurs that had sharp teeth, claws, and sometimes feathers. They included genera such as Tyrannosaurus, Velociraptor, Allosaurus, and Spinosaurus. Some of them were among the most intelligent and agile dinosaurs, with keen senses and complex social behaviors. Some of them also evolved into birds, which are the only living theropods today.


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Ornithischians were a diverse group of herbivorous dinosaurs that had a bird-like pelvis, but were not closely related to birds. They included genera such as Triceratops, Stegosaurus, Ankylosaurus, and Iguanodon. Some of them had horns, frills, spikes, plates, or armor for defense or display. Some of them also had cheek pouches or crops for storing food.


Dinosaurs reached their peak of diversity and abundance during the Cretaceous period, from 145 to 66 million years ago. They occupied almost every land habitat and continent, and some even ventured into the water or the air. They coexisted with other animals such as mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, insects, and plants. They also faced various challenges such as climate change, volcanic activity, and asteroid impacts.


How did dinosaurs adapt to different environments and lifestyles?




Dinosaurs were not just big and scary. They were also highly adaptable and specialized. They evolved various features and behaviors that allowed them to survive and thrive in different environments and lifestyles.


One of the most important aspects of dinosaur adaptation was their anatomy and physiology. Dinosaurs had a skeletal system that was strong but light, with hollow bones and air sacs. They also had a muscular system that was powerful but efficient, with tendons and ligaments. They also had a circulatory system that was fast and flexible, with a four-chambered heart and a network of blood vessels. They also had a respiratory system that was complex and effective, with lungs and air sacs that allowed them to breathe deeply and continuously. They also had a digestive system that was specialized and diverse, with different types of teeth, jaws, stomachs, and intestines for different diets.


Another important aspect of dinosaur adaptation was their behavior and ecology. Dinosaurs had various ways of interacting with their environment and other organisms. Some of them were solitary and territorial, while others were social and cooperative. Some of them were active during the day (diurnal), while others were active during the night (nocturnal). Some of them were migratory and nomadic, while others were sedentary and local. Some of them were herbivorous (plant-eating), while others were carnivorous (meat-eating) or omnivorous (eating both plants and animals). Some of them were predators (hunting other animals), while others were prey (being hunted by other animals).


A third important aspect of dinosaur adaptation was their feathered dinosaurs and the origin of birds. Feathers are modified scales that provide insulation, camouflage, display, or flight. Feathers first appeared in some theropods during the Jurassic period, such as Archaeopteryx, which is considered to be the first bird or the closest relative of birds. Feathers became more common and diverse in theropods during the Cretaceous period, such as Microraptor, which had four wings; Sinosauropteryx, which had a striped tail; or Yutyrannus, which was a large tyrannosaur with feathers. Feathers also evolved in some ornithischians during the Cretaceous period, such as Psittacosaurus, which had quills on its tail; or Tianyulong, which had filaments on its back.


How did dinosaurs go extinct and what survived?




Dinosaurs ruled the Earth for over 165 million years, but they did not last forever. About 66 million years ago, Dinosaurs ruled the Earth for over 165 million years, but they did not last forever. About 66 million years ago, a catastrophic event wiped out most of the life on Earth, including all non-avian dinosaurs. What caused this mass extinction and what survived?


One of the most well-known theories for the death of the dinosaurs is the Alvarez hypothesis, named after the father-and-son duo Luis and Walter Alvarez. In 1980, they proposed that a meteor the size of a mountain slammed into Earth 66 million years ago, filling the atmosphere with gas, dust, and debris that drastically altered the climate. Their key piece of evidence is an oddly high amount of the metal iridium in whats known as the Cretaceous-Paleogene, or K-Pg, layerthe geologic boundary zone that seems to cap any known rock layers containing dinosaur fossils. Iridium is relatively rare in Earth's crust but is more abundant in stony meteorites, which led them to conclude that the mass extinction was caused by an extraterrestrial object.


The theory gained even more support when scientists were able to link the extinction event to a huge impact crater along the coast of Mexicos Yucatán Peninsula. At about 93 miles wide, the Chicxulub crater seems to be the right size and age to account for the dino die-off. In 2016, scientists drilled a rock core inside the underwater part of Chicxulub, pulling up a sample stretching deep beneath the seabed. The core revealed a sequence of layers that recorded the events before, during, and after the impact, such as seismic waves, tsunamis, wildfires, and cooling.


The impact of the meteor would have released an enormous amount of energy, equivalent to more than a billion nuclear bombs. It would have created a huge fireball that vaporized rock and sent shock waves across the globe. It would have als


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